restart; with( plots ): with( plottools ): Shrinking Circle Problem Enhanced Solution to the Original Shrinking Circle Problem when the Fixed Curve is a Line Douglas B. Meade 9 February 2007
<Text-field style="Heading 1" layout="Heading 1">Setup the Geometry of the Problem</Text-field> C := a -> y = a*x; # fixed line Cr := r -> x^2+y^2=r^2; # shrinking circle P := r -> [ 0, r ]; # top of shrinking circle plotP := r -> plot( [P(r)], x=-1..1, style=point, symbol=circle, symbolsize=10, thickness=3, color=blue ): plotC := a -> implicitplot( C(a), x= -1..a, y=-1..a^2, color=pink, grid=[25*a,25] ): plotCr := r -> implicitplot( Cr(r), x=-r..r, y=-r..r, color=cyan ): P1 := (r,a) -> display( [plotP(r),plotC(a),plotCr(r)], view=[-r..max(r,2*a),DEFAULT], scaling=constrained, axes=normal, labels=["x","y"] ): P1(1,2);
<Text-field style="Heading 1" layout="Heading 1">The Point Q: The Intersection of C and C_r</Text-field> These ellipses intersect in two points. Intersection := [allvalues( solve( {C(a),Cr(r)}, {x,y} ) )] ; Of the two points, we want the one in the first quadrant X,Y := eval( [x,y], select( p->evalb( eval( [x,y], eval(p,[r=1.,a=2.]) )::[positive,positive] ), Intersection )[] )[]: x=X; y=Y; This is the formula for the point Q.LUklbXJvd0c2Iy9JK21vZHVsZW5hbWVHNiJJLFR5cGVzZXR0aW5nR0koX3N5c2xpYkdGJzYjLUkjbWlHRiQ2JVEhRicvJSdpdGFsaWNHUSV0cnVlRicvJSxtYXRodmFyaWFudEdRJ2l0YWxpY0Yn . To construct the projection from the top of the shrinking circle through Q onto the y=0 plane, Q := unapply( [ X, Y ], [r,a] ): plotQ := (r,a) -> plot( [Q(r,a)], color=gold, style=point, thickness=2 ): P2 := (r,a) -> display( [plotP(r),plotC(a),plotCr(r),plotQ(r,a)], axes=normal, labels=["x","y"], scaling=constrained ): P2(1,2);
<Text-field style="Heading 1" layout="Heading 1">The Point R: The Intersection of line through PQ and the x-axis</Text-field> For each angle theta, the lines passing through P and the point Q(theta) can be parameterized in terms of the (scaled) distance measured along this line. LinePQ := unapply( expand( (1-alpha)*P(r) + alpha*Q(r,a) ), [alpha,r,a] ); The value of the parameter alpha when these lines hit the z=0 plane are given by alpha0 := unapply( [simplify( solve( LinePQ(alpha,r,a)=0, alpha ) ) assuming a>0, r>0][], [r,a] ); Thus, the parametric representation of of the projected point, R, in the y=0 plane is R := unapply( [simplify( LinePQ(alpha0(r,a),r,a) ) assuming a>0, r>0][], [r,a] ); This completes the constructions needed to put all of this together in one animation. plotR := (r,a) -> plot( [P(r),R(r,a)], color=red, thickness=1 ): P3 := (r,a) -> display( [P2(r,a),plotR(r,a)] ): These plots already illustrate the rapid convergence of every point on the curves R - except the one on the x-axis - to the origin (as r->0). Let's look at the parametric form of R. The three components are: X,Y := R(r,a)[]: x=X; y=Y;
<Text-field style="Heading 1" layout="Heading 1">The Limit as r -> 0</Text-field> Maple does not have a problem with this limit - no indeterminate forms!, limit( X, r=0, right ); We close with a different animation that shows this convergence. plotR0 := a -> plot( [[0,0]], x=0..4*a, color=green, style=point, thickness=2 ): animR := a -> animate( P3, [2-r,a], r=0..2, frames=30, numpoints=401, paraminfo=false, background=plotR0(a), view=[-2..max(2,2*a,4/a),DEFAULT] ): animR(4);